Heavy Rydberg system

A heavy Rydberg system consists of a weakly bound positive and negative ion orbiting their common centre of mass. Such systems share many properties with the conventional Rydberg atom and consequently are sometimes referred to as heavy Rydberg atoms. While such a system is a type of ionically bound molecule, it should not be confused with a molecular Rydberg state, which is simply a molecule with one or more highly excited electrons.
The peculiar properties of the Rydberg atom come from the large charge separation and the resulting hydrogenic potential. The extremely large separation between the two components of a heavy Rydberg system results in an almost perfect 1/r hydrogenic potential seen by each ion. The positive ion can be viewed as analogous to the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, with the negative ion playing the role of the electron.[1]

Contents

1 Species of heavy Rydberg system
2 Production of heavy Rydberg systems
3 What makes heavy Rydberg systems interesting?
4 References

Species of heavy Rydberg system[edit]
The most commonly studied system to date is the

H

+

/

H

{\displaystyle H^{+}/H^{-}}

system, consisting of a proton bound with a

H

{\displaystyle H^{-}}

ion. The

H

+

/

H

{\displaystyle H^{+}/H^{-}}

system was first observed in 2000 by a group at the University of Waterloo in Canada.
The formation of the

H

{\displaystyle H^{-}}

ion can be understood classically; as the single electron in a hydrogen atom cannot fully shield the positively charged nucleus, another electron brought into close proximity will feel an attractive force. While this classical description is nice for getting a feel for the interactions involved, it is an oversimplification; many other atoms have a greater electron affinity than hydrogen. In general the process of forming a negative ion is driven by the filling of atomic electron shells to form a lower energy configur
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